All copper- Ferrules to be slid onto the braces of a spade. The old days these ferrules would be pounded out, cut to length and then shaped to fit around the brace bar, after being closed over by hand. We offer these pre-made ready to slide onto a 5/32 brace bar. I suggest that for a full cover brace bar- that you split the last two ferrules and put those on after the brace bar is attached. You can also do a 50/50 effect, place ferrules on lower half and wire wrap the upper half for a very unique look.